To start with, detailed attributes of the research professionals because of the sex was in fact exhibited as rates with the particular 95% count on interval (CI)

To start with, detailed attributes of the research professionals because of the sex was in fact exhibited as rates with the particular 95% count on interval (CI)

Sociodemographic characteristics included racial care about-group (light otherwise low-white age.grams. black colored, brown, purple, otherwise native), place of residence (urban or rural), schooling (0–cuatro, 5–8, 9–eleven, otherwise ? a dozen ages), and you will monthly domestic money for every single capita for the tertiles (reasonable, middle, or large). The urban–outlying group was based on the strategies employed by the brand new Brazilian Institute of Geography and Analytics (inside Portuguese, IBGE) in the 2010 society census out of management limits set out of the local guidelines. In this per municipality’s limits, these types of local statutes present an imaginary line entitled “metropolitan edge”. The fresh new census tracts receive during the “urban fringe” are termed metropolitan, while the rest of the section was designated outlying. Additional suggestions is acquired due to a face-to-deal with interviews on participant’s home.

Anthropometric variables

Height was measured in centimeters (cm) using a portable vertical stadiometer (NutriVida®, Brazil) with the participants barefoot with legs and feet parallel, weight distributed on both feet, arms relaxed at the sides, palms facing the body, and head in the Frankfurt horizontal plane. Weight was measured in kilograms (kg) using a portable digital scale (SECA®, Germany) with participants barefoot. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the ratio between weight in kilograms (kg) and height in square meters (m 2 ). BMI cutoff points were based on the World Health Organization recommendation: underweight (< 18.5> 94 cm in men and > 80 cm in women were considered “increased” since they are associated with a higher risk of metabolic complications . All anthropometric variables were measured twice during the home visit by trained interviewers and the mean of the measurements was used in the analyses. Further information can be seen in the handbook on the survey homepage (

Analytical analysis

Additionally, we provided information on the most prevalent chronic diseases diagnosed by a physician in our sample. Secondly, fractional polynomial regression models were fitted to estimate the percentiles (P5, P10, P20, P25, P50, P75, P90, and P95) of HGS by age group and sex. This method provides smooth centile curves and explicit formulae for the percentile estimates. Diagnostic tests were used to evaluate the model fit (normal plot of the Z-scores, Shapiro–Wilk test, and residuals plot). The model was fitted by maximum likelihood, which accounts for non-normal skewness and/or kurtosis in the data . Thirdly, HGS centile curves for men and women were plotted in charts. Finally, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models separate for men and women were created to investigate the sociodemographic and anthropometric variables associated with muscle weakness, being estimated the odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI. Variables with p < 0.20>


Figure 1 describes the flow chart of the participants throughout the study. Our analytical sample was composed of 7905 participants aged 50–101 years (63.1 ± 9.1 years): 3162 men (63.2 ± 8.7 years) and 4743 women (63.1 ± 9.4 years). The excluding participants were similar to including participants regarding sex (p = 0.092), schooling (p = 0.813), and monthly household income per capita (p = 0.189) but tended to be older (? 80 years: 11.8% vs. 6.5%, respectively, p < 0.001).

The advantages of your own analysis people of the sex is seen flГёrtende emojis for ham for the Desk 1. In sexes, most professionals was in fact non-white, lived in the brand new area, got 0–cuatro many years of education, and you may demonstrated increased hips circumference. Concerning the Body mass index, fat was the most frequent category for men (42.9%), whenever you are fat and you will carrying excess fat had almost similar frequencies for females (thirty-six.9% and thirty-five.4%, respectively). Off chronic problems, forty-two.1% away from members advertised with a health medical diagnosis out-of arterial blood circulation pressure, 17.4% out of all forms of diabetes mellitus, eleven.5% away from osteoporosis, eight.4% out-of center disease (angina, myocardial infarction, and you may center failure), and you may 5.7% from breathing disease (symptoms of asthma and you can persistent obstructive pulmonary state).